Oxygen, or o2, which comprises 21 percent of the earth's atmosphere, supports life and makes combustion possible. The most abundant of all elements on earth, oxygen comprises 85 percent of its oceans and, as a component of most rocks and minerals, 46 percent of its solid crust. In addition, it constitutes 60 percent of the human body. Oxygen is colorless, odorless and tasteless and it has poor solubility in water.
Oxygen, the second-largest volume industrial gas, is produced commercially as a gas or as a liquid by several methods. These include:
- Cryogenic Air separation- a process that compresses and cools atmospheric air, then, relying on different boiling points - separates the resulting liquid into its components in a distillation column.
- Vacuum Pressure Swing Adsorption (psa)- a non-cryogenic technology that produces oxygen from air by using an adsorbent in pressure swing process to remove nitrogen.
- Steel manufacturing
- Chemical processing
- Pulp and paper
- Petroleum recovery and refining
- Health services
- To convert coal to electricity for power generation
Nitrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless and mostly inert diatomic gas at standard conditions, constituting 78.08% by volume of earth's atmosphere. Nitrogen occurs in all living organisms, and the nitrogen cycle describes movement of the element from air into the biosphere and organic compounds, then back into the atmosphere. Synthetically-produced nitrates are key ingredients of industrial fertilizers, and also key pollutants in causing the eutrophication of water systems.
Nitrogen, one of the largest volume industrial gases, is produced commercially as a gas or as a liquid by several methods. These include:
- Cryogenic Air separation- a process in which air is compressed and cooled to cryogenic temperatures, liquefied and then, relying on different boiling points, separated into its components in a distillation column.
- Membrane separation- a non-cryogenic technology that uses hollow-fiber polymer membranes to separate gaseous nitrogen from air by selective permeability. Membrane nitrogen is usually lower cost than cryogenically produced nitrogen, but it is also lower purity.
- Water process
- Ferrous metallurgy
- Non-ferrous metal refinery
- Coal mines
Others: chemical industry production, solid garbage burning, concrete production, glass manufacturing, medical oxygen, etc.
Acetylene is the chemical compound with the formula c2h2. It is a hydrocarbon and the simplest alkynes. This colorless gas is widely used as a fuel and a chemical building block. It is unstable in pure form and thus is usually handled as a solution. Acetylene is a colorless, combustible gas with a distinctive odor. When acetylene is liquefied, compressed, heated, or mixed with air, it becomes highly explosive. As a result special precautions are required during its production and handling.
There are two basic conversion processes used to make acetylene. One is a chemical reaction process, which occurs at normal temperatures. The other is a thermal cracking process, which occurs at extremely high temperatures.
- Chemical reaction process- Acetylene may be generated by the chemical reaction between calcium carbide and water. This reaction produces a considerable amount of heat, which must be removed to prevent the acetylene gas from exploding.
- Thermal cracking process- Acetylene may also be generated by raising the temperature of various hydrocarbons to the point where their atomic bonds break, or crack, in what is known as a thermal cracking process. After the hydrocarbon atoms break apart, they can be made to rebond to form different materials than the original raw materials.
- Glass, cement and lime
- Laboratories and analysis
- Welding, cutting and coating
- Chemical synthesis.